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Citation Help

General Tips

General rules

  • If your source lacks one of the ingredients in the citation, you can ignore that ingredient and continue. For instance, if your book doesn‟t list an author, you can skip it and go on to the title.
  • Pay close attention to capitalization and italicized text:
     
    • Book titles – Capitalize first word of title and subtitle that comes after a colon. Capitalize proper nouns. Italicize entire title.

      Example: Making learning whole: How seven principles of teaching can transform education
       
    • Article titles – capitalize first word of title and subtitle only. No italics. No quotation marks. No underlining.

      Example: Appraising, researching and conceptualizing criminal thinking: A personal view
       
    • Journal titles – capitalize and italicize all words of the title.

      Example: Journal of Psychology
  • Author names - When listing the author(s) of a source, a number of general rules should be followed across all publication formats. List an author‟s last name and use initials for the first and middle names. Include a space between the first and middle initial.

    NOTE: These naming rules apply to the References page.  Different rules apply when using in-text or parenthetical citations.

    Examples

One Author                      
Lopez, M. T.

Two Authors                     
Lopez, M. T., & Fox, J.

Three to Six Authors         
Lopez, M. T., Fox, J., & Moran, A.

Six or More Authors           
Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., et al.(“et al.” means “and others.”)

Organization as Author      
Pima Community College.

No Author                        
<skip the author and begin with title>

  • For correct information, such as the book title, place of publication, and publisher, consult the title page of the book (not the book‟s cover). The copyright date is found on the next page, next to the © symbol, for example, © 2009

Common Abbreviations

Abbreviation Term
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech.Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement

Books, Anthologies, and e-Books

General format for books

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Place of publication:

Publisher.


Examples

Items in green indicate variations in the citation based on the format.

Book with One Author

Dixon, W. E. (2003). Twenty studies that revolutionized child psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.


Book with Two Authors

Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (1999). Abnormal child psychology. Belmont, CA: Brooks/

Cole-Wadsworth.


Electronic Book (E-Book) with URL

Hersen, M., & Ammerman, R. T.(Eds.). (2000). Advanced abnormal child psychology (2nd ed).

Retrieved from http://0www.netlibrary.com. library2.pima.edu/


    Book published in 2nd or subsequent edition

    Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed). Chicago:

    University of Chicago Press.

    • Insert edition of book after the title of the book, abbreviating edition with ed.


    Book with editors instead of authors.

    Torr, J. D. (Ed.). (2004). Crime and criminals. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

    • An edited book is a collection of articles or chapters, often written by various authors. It has an editor instead of an author, indicated by the (Ed.) after the list of editors.
    • Use the example above if you are citing the book as a whole. To cite one of the articles in the book, see section below on Articles or Chapters within a Book


    Translated Book

    Berko, A. (2007). The path to paradise: The inner world of suicide bombers and their

    dispatchers (E. Yuval, Trans.). Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. (Original

    work published 2004).

    • Add translator after title of book, abbreviating translator with Trans.



    ARTICLES OR CHAPTERS WITHIN A BOOK

    Work in an anthology or edited book

    Brown, G. W. (2000). Emotion and clinical depression: An environmental view. In M.

    Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 75-90).

    New York: Guilford Press.


    Electronic Article from an Online Reference Book

    Baran, A., & Lifton, B. (2004). Adoption. In S. G. Post (Ed.), Encyclopedia of bioethics, (Vol. 1, pp. 68-74). Retrieved from http://0-go.galegroup.com

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