In-text citations (or parenthetical citations) point your reader to specific entries on the References page.
In-text citation are placed throughout the body of your paper, whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source.
PARENTHETICAL CITATION EXAMPLES
One or two authors:
(Dunn & Diaz, 2008)
Three, four, or five authors - list all authors in first instance then use et al. in subsequent citations:
(Phipps, Jones, Soto, & Blake, 2008)
(Phipps et al., 2008)
Six or more authors - use et al.
(Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Organization as author
(University of Arizona, 2011)
No author (for an article):
(“Economy Perks Up,” 2011)
Always give page number(s) for a quotation:
(Spesard, 1998, p. 16)
The in-text citation is generally located at the end of the sentence, or as close as possible to the text in which you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source.
In-text citations include:
There are two ways to cite references:
(1) Within the text, with author name as part of a narrative:
Smith and Jones disputed the Committee’s conclusion (1997).
(2) At the end of a sentence using author name and page number in parentheses:
Some researchers strongly dispute the Committee’s conclusion (Smith & Jones, 1997).
On occasion, you may wish to cite a source within another source you are using. In this case, use the as cited in before the indirect source, and mention the source in the text:
Clark’s study (as cited in Smith & Jones, 1997), indicates that…
In this situation, do not cite both articles. Instead, your References page will contain the article by Smith & Jones only. Clark is merely credited in the text of your paper.
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