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HES210: Cultural Aspects of Health and Illness (Hopson)

Summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting

Paraphrase:  Carefully read the source.  Once fully understood put the information into your own words (use synonyms).  Don't look at the source while writing. The order of information does not need to be the same.  

Summarize:  Carefully read the source.  Once the information is understood use your own words to capture the main ideas.  Write without looking at the source.  A summary is much shorter than the original since it only covers key points.  

Quoting:  Only quote when the meaning of a passage cannot be captured or have the same impact when put into your own words.  

Project steps

1. Define the condition

  • The post should not be copied and pasted from another source.  It is important that the topic be explained in your own words since that shows you have given your topic some thought and have developed an understanding.  The more detail you provide the better.  What are the specific focal points of the topic that your group will be covering in the poster presentation?  
  • The definition needs to be supported by a reliable source.  For assistance with evaluating sources, guidance is provided within the Find open resources tab on this guide.  
  • Reference books, such as Salem Health (see link below), provide overview information about topics and help with gaining a general understanding.  

2. Provide statistics

  • Government agencies and organizations are premier sources of statistics.
  • Remember to use the following Google search format for accessing statistics (.int narrows to international groups like the WHO or UN):
    • STDs~statistics 
    • obesity~statistics
    • addiction~statistics
  • Sage Stats is a library database that provides data related to the poster presentation topics.  See link below.  

3. Describe the negative impact for health

4. List the steps on how to reverse the negative impact

Finding images

Library databases can be a great source of images (see links to recommended databases below).  

Citations for open web poster sources

Most GCC library databases have citation generators that can be used to, at the very least, provide citation support. Warning -- Generated citations often contain errors.  

Charts, tables and graphs

Copyright holder or author. (Year). Title of data set [Description of source, e.g. table or chart]. Retrieved from url


  • World Health Organization. (2018). Obesity worldwide distribution [Table]. Retrieved from weburlhere

Drawings, photographs

Copyright holder, artist or photographer. (Year). Title [Description of source, e.g. photograph or cartoon]. Retrieved from weburlhere


  •  Paolo, V. (Photographer). (2013). The mortally wounded by addiction [Photograph]. Retrieved     from weburlhere 


Copyright holder or cartographer. (Year). Title of map [Description of source, e.g. demographic map or resource map]. Retrieved from url


  • Arizona Health Information Services. (2018). Reports of sexually transmitted diseases by county [Demographic map].  Retrieved from weburlhere

Citing a data source, image or map adapted from another source

When using a data source, image or map found within the contents of another resource you must cite the source it was adapted from.  To do this include the title or the description of the data source, image or map followed by a citation of the source it was found within.

Description or title of data source, image or map.  Adapted from include citation of source here.  Include copyright year and name of copyright holder if available.  


  • Political cartoon about the opioid epidemic in the United States.  Adapted from Reba, Q.C. (2018). The government needs an opioid fix. New Yorker, 29(3), 29–31. Retrieved from

How to - Putting the poster together

Resource for inspiration:

Poster Presentation Tips - NAU 

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